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Joined: Sep 14, 2015
Posts: 234
From:
  Posted: 2015-11-25 04:01

These devices are generally housed in duel in line packages (DIL) although some military specification devices are housed in a metal can rather like a transistor but with more leads. Figure 10a shows a typical op-amp package. Packages are available in 8 way Nike Air Max 90 Femme Pas Cher , 14 way, 16 way, up to 40 way, where several devices may be housed in the same package. The operational amplifier,(op-amp) symbol shown in fig 10b shows an amplifier with a negative inverting input and positive non inverting input with respect to the output. The power supply connections are shown above and below the body of the amplifier. The amplifier is generally supplied with a duel power supply to enable it to operate either side of 0 volts http://www.chaussureairmax90pascher.fr/ , but in many cases it is cost effective to design a circuit where the amplifier output does not fall below zero volts thus making a size and cost saving in the design. Note not all operational amplifiers will operate with a single supply. The operational amplifier configurations shown in figures 10c,10d and 10e enable the amplifier to operate as an inverting, non-inverting or differential amplifier. Without external components the amplifier would have a gain in the order of 10,000 times therefore negative feedback is introduced into the design. The inverting amplifier shown in figure 10c is driven from a source with an output impedance of Rs. Resistors Ri and Rf are used to provide negative feedback. The values are calculated as follows: Gain G = RfRin, where Rin = Rs + Ri 1R = 1Rin + 1Rf Nike Air Max 90 Chaussures , therefore R= RinRf(Rin + Rf) R is selected to provide the same impedance to the positive input as the negative. In the case of a variable Rs, ie feed from a potentiometer, the value of Ri should be selected to be many times greater than Rs, so Rs has an insignificant effect on gain. The non-inverting amplifier shown in Figure 10d is driven from a source with an output impedance of Rs. Resistors R and Rf are used to provide negative feedback. The values are calculated as follows: Gain G = (Rf + R)R, and R = Rin = Ri + Rs The differential amplifier shown in Figure 10e has inputs at both inverting and non - inverting ports. This is useful in cases where a signal 0v cannot be directly connected to the amplifier zero volt line Nike Air Max 90 Prix , ie buffer amplifiers, or the difference between two separate points which must be amplified. The amplifier produces a positive output when the signal on the positive port is greater than the signal on the negative port. The values are calculated as follows: Gain G = (Rf + Rin)Rin, where Rin = Ri + Rs and R = Rf In cases where a considerable variation in gain is required from a single stage amplifier problems can arise from the impedance imbalance caused by a potentiometer either in the feedback loop or at the input. This can result in excessive drift or instability of the output signal. These problems can be largely avoided if a proportional feedback circuit is used, see fig 11. To calculate the maximum and minimum values of gain: At Gain min: G = [(Rf + Rin)Rin]*(R1 + Vr1 + R2)(R2 + Vr1) G = (Rf + Rin)(R1 + Vr1 + R2)Rin(R2 + Vr1) At Gain max: G = [(Rf + Rin)Rin]*(R1 + Vr1 + R2)R2 G = (Rf + Rin)(R1 + Vr1 + R2)RinR2 Where R = Rf and Rin = Rs + Ri The Parameters of Operational Amplifiers Supply Voltage Range: This is specified as V or +V1 to +V2 note there is always a minimum supply voltage. Input Current: This is the load current of the inverting and non-inverting inputs measured in nA (this is usually small and can be neglected in most designs). Input Offset Voltage: This is the standing voltage on the input which will be reflected as an offset voltage on the output, this is gain dependant. Input Offset Current: The input offset current will also be reflected on the voltage output it is input resistor and gain dependant. Drift: Input offset current and voltage dependant these figures are not always quoted for general purpose operational amplifiers. Common Mode Rejection: This is the noise rejection of the inputs where both inputs are subjected to the same noise. To minimise common mode noise rejection the input impedances of a differential amplifier should be balanced. Series Mode Rejection: This is the rejection of input noise in terms of current Nike Air Max 90 Pas Cher , to minimise the effects of series mode noise the input resistor impedances must be as small as possible. Differential Input Voltage (max): This is the maximum voltage swing the inputs can accept and is also limited by the supply voltage. Power Dissipation (max): The power dissipation of the operational amplifier is mainly affected by the output voltage swing and the output load (as the output impedance is small). The supply volts if significantly higher than the voltage swing will also be detrimental to the power dissipation. Open Loop Voltage Gain: This is the gain of the amplifier before external feedback components are added. It is usually quoted in db. Note: Gain in db = 20logG* where Log10 = 1, Log100 = 2, Log1000 = 3,Log10000 = 4, etc where log = logarithm to base 10. Therefore a gain of 60db  1000*. Slew Rate: This is the response of the output signal to a step change in the input signal measured in Vs. Output Voltage Swing (max): This is quoted at a typical supply voltage for the device Nike Air Max 90 , and usually is approximately 2V below rail voltages. Gain Bandwidth Product: The frequency at which the output voltage is attenuated by 3db, with the input level constant. The Operational Amplifier as a Summer: If several signals are to be combined, ie summed these signals can be fed via their own input resistors to an operational amplifier, Fig 12 shows a non inverting amplifier with summing junction. The gain is set by (Rf + R)R, and 1R = 1(Rs1 + Ri1) + 1(Rs2 +Ri2).to +1(Rsn + Rin) where n is the nth input. The obvious disadvantage with this s Dur.



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Joined: Oct 28, 2018
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From:
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From:
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